Sheep & Goat Research Journal. Volume 21, 2006

Contents

Browsing of Western Snowberry by Goats and Sheep
Author: Alexander J. Smart, Jay Daniel, Kelly Bruns, and Jeff Held
Stocking Rates on Cultivated Winter Pastures for Meat Goats
Author: James P. Muir
Sexual Performance and Reproductive Characteristics of Young Adult Awassi, Charollais-Awassi and Romanov-Awassi Rams
Author: R. T. Kridli, A. Y. Abdullah and M. Momani Shaker
The Color of Scoured and Carded Wools: A Comparison of U.S., Australian and New Zealand Wools
Author: Bruce A. Cameron, Robert H. Stobart
Development and Consumer Acceptance of Pre-cooked Lamb Leg Roasts
Author: J.D. Kellermeier, G.G. Hilton, M.A. Carr, and B.J. May
Efficacy of Dried Distiller's Grains with Solubles as a Replacement for Soybean Meal and a Portion of the Corn in a Finishing Lamb Diet
Author: T. J. Huls, A. J. Bartosh, J. A. Daniel, R. D. Zelinsky, J. Held, A. E. Wertz-Lutz
Development and Consumer Acceptance of Pre-cooked Goat Roasts
Author: G.G. Hilton, M.A. Carr, J.D. Kellermeier and B.J. May
Corn Supplement for Goats on Summer Rangeland or Improved Pasture
Author: James P. Muir and Stuart A. Weiss

Article Summaries

Browsing of Western Snowberry by Goats and Sheep

Author: Alexander J. Smart, Jay Daniel, Kelly Bruns, and Jeff Held
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Summary

Managers of pastures in the northern tallgrass prairie region are faced with incomplete control of aggressive woody plant species, such as western snowberry (Symphoricarpus occidentalis Hook.), due to its high sprouting ability after fire or mowing and the reluctance of managers to use herbicides, which may harm desirable plant species. The objective of this study was to compare browsing preference for western snowberry by goats and sheep as an alternative control method of western snowberry. The study was conducted from 2003 through 2005 at South Dakota State University?s Oak Lake Field Station in eastern South Dakota. Small, fenced plots of native prairie vegetation, infested with western snowberry, were grazed by either sheep or goats for three to five days in late June. Western snowberry plant height, foliar cover, forb foliar cover, and grass foliar cover were measured before and after grazing. During the grazing period, goats reduced western snowberry more than did sheep, reducing plant height 12 percent vs. 0 percent and foliar cover 43 percent vs. 19 percent, respectively (P < 0.10) adjusted for similar stocking rate. Goats also selected forbs, reducing forb foliar cover by 44 percent vs. 28 percent (P < 0.10) for sheep during the grazing period. Goats and sheep selected grass to a similar extent. Goats could be an acceptable alternative to herbicides for western snowberry control. However, managers also should be aware that heavy defoliation of forbs by both species may result in a decrease in desirable plant species.

Stocking Rates on Cultivated Winter Pastures for Meat Goats

Author: James P. Muir
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Summary

Cultivated cool-season pastures are needed to complement rangeland-based goat production in warmer regions of North America, but optimum stocking rates have yet to be determined. To address this question, growing Spanish X Boer doe kids (average 25 kg) were stocked at 0-12.5 head ha-1 from 14 January to 22 April 2002 (366 mm rainfall from October 2001 to April 2002) and 8 January to 23 April 2003 (494 mm rainfall over the same months) on cultivated pastures seeded with annual, coolseason grasses and legumes in north-central Texas, United States. Legumes comprised only 10 percent of the herbage and were less affected by stocking rates than were grasses. Grass biomass increased during the growing season and declined with stocking rate. Herbage fiber concentrations increased and N concentrations decreased with both grass and legume maturity and were not strongly affected by stocking rates. There was an inverse relationship between average daily gains per animal and per area, with the best gains (132 g) per animal at low stocking rates and greatest production (463 g) ha-1 at high stocking rates. Stocking rates indicated that herbage availability appeared to be a greater determinant to animal weight gain than did herbage nutritive value.

Sexual Performance and Reproductive Characteristics of Young Adult Awassi, Charollais-Awassi and Romanov-Awassi Rams

Author: R. T. Kridli, A. Y. Abdullah and M. Momani Shaker
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Summary

This study was conducted to evaluate the reproductive performance of two-yr-old, sexually na?ve rams of different genotypes. Eight rams of each Awassi (A), F1 Charollais- Awassi (CA) and F1 Romanov-Awassi (RA) genotypes were subjected to sexual performance tests by being individually exposed to two estrous Awassi ewes for five, 20-min periods. Body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), scrotal circumference (SC) and semen characteristics were recorded every 2 wk for 2 mo prior to sexual performance testing. Awassi rams engaged in more leg-kicking bouts (P < 0.01) than RA rams. Mounting frequency, raising the fat tail of females, and ejaculation rate were greater (P < 0.05) in A than in CA and RA rams. No genotype x test day interactions were detected, however, test day influenced (P = 0.05) ejaculation rate. Rams of the CA genotype had greater BW (P < 0.01) than RA and A. The CA rams had greater SC (P < 0.01) than A rams and higher BCS (P < 0.01) than RA rams. The RA rams had greater (P < 0.05) semen mass motility than A and lower (P < 0.05) percentage of abnormal spermatozoa than A and CA rams. Additionally, semen concentration tended (P < 0.10) to be greater in RA than in A and CA rams. Results of the present study indicate that RA rams tend to have better semen characteristics, while Awassi rams had better sexual performance when mated with fat-tailed females than the CA and RA genotypes, which may necessitate the use of artificial insemination during crossbreeding programs.

The Color of Scoured and Carded Wools: A Comparison of U.S., Australian and New Zealand Wools

Author: Bruce A. Cameron, Robert H. Stobart
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Summary

Fifty greasy core samples of wool fibers representing various regions of the United States were obtained from Yocom- McColl Testing Laboratories. In addition 50 greasy core sample of New Zealand wool (Soci?t? G?n?rale de Surveillance [SGS]) and 10 greasy core samples Australian Wool Testing Authority (AWTA) were obtained. After scouring, average fiber diameter and clean color were determined. After measurement of clean color, the samples were carded to evaluate its effect on the measured color of the wool. Color measurements of the scoured and the scoured and carded wools clearly indicated that there were differences between the yellowness of the samples. Wools from each country were grouped according to fiber diameter into four groups;

Development and Consumer Acceptance of Pre-cooked Lamb Leg Roasts

Author: J.D. Kellermeier, G.G. Hilton, M.A. Carr, and B.J. May
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Summary

The objective of this study was to develop a palatable precooked lamb leg roast. Lamb legs (n = 60) were fabricated into 240 roasts. Roasts were assigned to one of four spice treatments: control (CON), Italian, Mexican, prime rib. After being injected with a 15 percent brine mixture, roasts were smoked to an internal temperature of 63?C, vacuum packaged, and frozen at -10?C. Roasts were thawed and reheated one of three ways (conventional oven, microwave oven, or boiling) and served to a trained sensory panel to determine differences in reheating method. No differences (P > 0.05) were found between reheating methods. The trained panel rated the prime rib spice the juiciest, the most tender, the most flavorful, and the best in overall acceptability. The control treatment (CON) was rated higher (P < 0.05) for lamb flavor, warmed-over flavor, and flavor intensity by trained panelists. Upon completion of trained sensory panel, a consumer panel (n = 199) was served samples of roasts to determine the preferred spice blend. Consumers rated the prime rib spice the highest (P < 0.05) for all palatability attributes and the CON the lowest (P < 0.05). This study indicated the prime rib spice treatment was preferred most often for tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall liking by both the trained sensory panel and consumer panel. Therefore, roasts seasoned with the prime rib rub appear to have the most market potential.

Efficacy of Dried Distiller's Grains with Solubles as a Replacement for Soybean Meal and a Portion of the Corn in a Finishing Lamb Diet

Author: T. J. Huls, A. J. Bartosh, J. A. Daniel, R. D. Zelinsky, J. Held, A. E. Wertz-Lutz
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Summary

The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of replacing soybean meal (SBM) and a portion of the corn with dried distiller?s grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and the incidence of acidosis, bloat, or urinary calculi in wethers fed a high-grain finishing diet with soyhulls (SH) as the only source of dietary fiber. Wethers (n = 40) were allotted by weight to ten pens (average lamb weight per pen 43.4 kg ? 0.54 kg). Dietary treatments, SH-CORN-DDGS or SH-CORN-SBM, were assigned randomly to five pens. Diets were balanced to have similar CP (14.6 percent), ME (3.4 Mcal/kg), and calcium:phosphorous (2:1) and were pelleted and delivered through self-feeders. Wethers were observed twice daily for symptoms of acidosis, bloat, and urinary calculi. Feed offerings and feeder contents at trial termination were weighed and DMI was calculated. Gain:feed and ADG were calculated based on weights recorded at initiation and termination of the 64-d finishing period. Growth performance, DMI, and carcass data were analyzed statistically in a one-way analysis of variance with pen as the experimental unit. Average daily gain, DMI, gain:feed, and carcass characteristics did not differ (P > 0.05) between dietary treatments. Wethers did not exhibit symptoms of acidosis, bloat, or urinary calculi regardless of treatment. Dried distillers grains with solubles is a suitable substitute for SBM and a portion of the corn in a finishing wether diet where SH are the only source of fiber.

Development and Consumer Acceptance of Pre-cooked Goat Roasts

Author: G.G. Hilton, M.A. Carr, J.D. Kellermeier and B.J. May
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Summary

The objective of this study was to develop a palatable, precooked goat roast. Goat legs (n = 64) were fabricated into 220 roasts and assigned to one of four spice treatments: control (CON), Italian, Mexican, prime rib. After being injected with a 15-percent brine mixture, roasts were smoked to an internal temperature of 63?C, vacuum packaged, and frozen at -10?C. Roasts were thawed and reheated one of three ways (conventional oven, microwave oven, or boiling) and served to a trained sensory panel to determine differences in reheating method. The trained panel rated roasts boiled lower (P < 0.05) for initial and sustained juiciness and tenderness than roasts reheated in the microwave or conventional oven. The trained panel rated the prime rib spice juiciest, most tender, most flavorful, and the best in overall acceptability. The control treatment (CON) was rated higher (P < 0.05) for goat flavor, warmed-over flavor, and flavor intensity by the trained panelists. Upon completion of the trained sensory panel, a consumer panel was conducted to determine differences in treatments. Consumer panelists (n = 200) were served samples of roasts to determine preferred spice blend. Consumers rated the prime rib spice the highest (P < 0.05) for all palatability attributes and the Italian roasts the lowest (P < 0.05). This study indicated the prime rib spice treatment was preferred most often for tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall liking by both trained sensory panelists and consumer panelists. Therefore, roasts seasoned with the prime rib rub appear to have the most market potential.

Corn Supplement for Goats on Summer Rangeland or Improved Pasture

Author: James P. Muir and Stuart A. Weiss
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Summary

Improved (cultivated) pastures (IP) and supplements are needed to complement rangeland-based goat production in warmer regions of North America during the hot and dry months of June through September. To address this need, growing Spanish X Boer wether kids (average 25 kg) grazing IP (primarily annual legumes and Amaranthus retroflexus) were compared to kids on honey mesquite native rangeland (NRProsopis glandulosa var. glandulosa) with an understory dominated by little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium) during the summers of 2002 and 2003 in north-central Texas, United States. Wethers within both IP and NR were supplemented with corn meal at 0 percent, 0.5 percent, or 1.0 percent BW. Herbage biomass in the IP peaked in July, whereas biomass in the NR tended to peak in August. Kids supplemented with 0.5 percent BW corn on the NR had 61percent greater average daily gains (ADG) than unsupplemented animals, whereas those on IP had to be supplemented at 1.0 percent BW corn before showing an increase in ADG (31percent) compared to unsupplemented animals. Unsupplemented wether kids on NR gained only 30.5 percent the ADG of kids fed a balanced feedlot diet (159 g ADG), while kids on IP gained 53.3 percent of those fed a balanced feedlot diet, indicating that neither foragebased system was able to provide the nutrition needed to achieve maximum gain potential. Improved pasture and corn supplement both have potential for increasing wether ADG compared to rangeland during dry, hot summer months.