Sheep & Goat Research Journal. Volume 27, 2012
Effects of Supplemental Dried Distillers Grains or Soybean Hulls on Growth and Internal Parasites Status of Grazing Lambs
View PDF File
The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of supplementation of grazing lambs with dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) or soybean hulls (SBH) on growth rate and nematode-parasite status. Over the course of four experiments in consecutive years, 312 lambs were grazed on the same four or six paddocks. Grazing lambs were allotted to one of three supplementation treatments: 1) control, no supplementation (CONT), 2) DDGS, or 3) SBH (Exp. 3 and 4 only). Supplemental DDGS improved (P < 0.01) ADG when compared to CONT, and SBH supplemented lambs were intermediate. An analysis comparing CONT vs. DDGS supplementation across all four experiments revealed a reduction in anthelmintic-treatment rate required when DDGS were supplemented (81.2 percent vs. 30.1 percent for CONT and DDGS, respectively; P < 0.01). Measures of FAMACHA© score, packed-cell volume (PCV), and fecal-egg count (FEC) were recorded in weeks 3, 5, and 10. An analysis comparing just CONT and DDGS supplementation across all four experiments revealed that DDGS supplementation reduced (P < 0.01) FAMACHA score in weeks 3, 5, and 10, but only reduced FEC in week 3 compared to CONT lambs. Supplementation of grazing lambs with DDGS in this study allowed for increased growth, reduced anthelmintic-treatment rate, and reduced risk of becoming anemic as a result of internal parasites.
Key Words: Distillers Grains, Grazing, Lambs, Parasite, Soybean Hulls, Supplementation
Performance of Meat Goats Control-Grazed on Winter Annual Grasses
View PDF File
The performance of yearling replacement does and castrated male goats (Capra hircus hircus) controlledgrazed on cereal rye (CR; Secale cereale L.), annual ryegrass (RG; Lolium multiflorum L.) and triticale (TT; Triticosecale rimpaui) was evaluated during a 3-year study. Each year, 54 Boer and Boer-cross goats (avg initial age and BW: 8 mo to 10 mo and 30.4 kg, respectively) were assigned to nine plots (0.19 ha each) each containing six “tester” goats. Additional goats (put and take) were used to control forage growth. Forage species had no effect on ADG; however, castrated males gained more weight than does in year 2 (139 g/d vs. 94 g/d; P < 0.003) and during period 2 in year 3 (224 g/d vs. 146 g/d; P < 0.0004). Gain per ha was greater for RG than CR and TT (year 1: 514, 311, 293 kg, P < 0.001; year 2: 237, 144, 184 kg, P < 0.004; year 3: 528, 268, 149 kg, P < 0.004). In year 3, pH of ruminal fluid, ruminal ammonia and chilled-carcass yield from castrated males grazing RG, CR and TT was similar (avg: 6.67, 25.7 mg/dL and 51.3 percent, respectively), whereas plasma-urea nitrogen (16.4, 21.9, 24.1 mg/dL; P < 0.024), ruminal acetate (62.0, 60.7, 57.7 mM/100mM; P < 0.017), propionate (22.0, 25.2, 27.0 mM/100mM; P < 0.006) and acetate:propionate (2.83, 2.43, 2.22; P < 0.017) differed among forage species. Results indicated that yearling goats achieved satisfactory BW gains when fed only on these forages under controlled, rotational-grazing management, but that RG resulted in significantly greater BW gains per hectare.
Key Words: Annual Ryegrass, Cereal Rye, Meat Goat, Performance, Triticale
Efficacy Of Garlic Juice, Copper Oxide Wire Particles, And Anthelmintics To Control Gastrointestinal Nematodes In Goates
View PDF File
Resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) to anthelmintics and a need for nonchemical control of GIN necessitates investigation of alternative control methods. This study examined the efficacy of garlic juice (99.5 percent pure) (G), copper oxide wire particles (COWP), levamisole (L), moxidectin (M), a combination treatment of COWP and G (CG), and no treatment (C) for GIN control in lactating Boer x Kiko does. Treatments were administered at d 0 and the G treatment was repeated every 7 d throughout the 28 d study. Mixed-model procedures for repeated measures were used to evaluate the effect of treatment and date of sampling on fecal-egg counts (FEC), and percentpacked-cell volume (PCV). Larval cultures from fecal samples at d 0 contained H. contortus, but Telodorsagia and Trichostrongylus were the predominant parasites. There was no difference (P > 0.05) in FEC or PCV of does due to GIN-control method. The PCV was greater (P < 0.05) at d 0 (31.2 percent ± 0.7 percent) when compared to d 7 (29.1 percent ± 0.7 percent), d 14 (28.7 percent ± 1.1 percent), and d 21 (28.8 percent ± 0.8 percent). The PCV at d 28 (23.5 percent ± 0.9 percent) was lower (P < 0.001) than all other sampling d. The FEC did not differ (P > 0.05) at d 0 (756 eggs/g ± 414 eggs/g), d 7 (1349 eggs/g ± 448 eggs/g), and d 14 (1782 eggs/g ± 436 eggs/g). The FEC at d 21 (2259 eggs/g ± 464 eggs/g) was trending (P = 0.08) higher as compared to d 0. The FEC at d 28 (3935 eggs/g ± 449 eggs/g) was greater (P < 0.05) than FEC at all other sampling d. Trichostrongylus and Telodorsagia were the primary GIN species and not H. contortus as is often assumed at the research and farm level. These data support determining which GIN species are present in a goat herd at various times of the year and applying an internal-parasite-management protocol accordingly. Treatments used in this study were not effective in controlling any of the GIN species present.
Key Words: Goat, Parasitism, Garlic, Copper Wire, Anthelmintic
Effectiveness of Theobromine and Caffeine Mixtures in Coyote Lure Operative Devices as a Predacide: A Simulated Field Study
View PDF File
Predators are capable of causing damage to domestic livestock throughout North America. Lethal responses for managing livestock depredations may include the use of sodium cyanide in M-44 devices. Currently, several states have banned the use of M-44s and several other states are forecast to ban these devices. Therefore, additional tools are being sought to expand the repertoire of options available for managing coyote depredations on domestic livestock. We evaluated the use of a theobromine:caffeine mixture delivered within a Coyote Lure Operative Device (CLOD) as an additional predacide for coyotes (Canis latrans). Results from six trials involving 38 captive coyotes were ambiguous. Issues related to the attractiveness of the CLOD, palatability of the compound, and absorption of the theobromine:caffeine mixture produced mortality levels below the desired >90-percent-mortality rate deemed adequate for laboratory efficacy study to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) registration and operational use. While many coyotes died from consumption of the theobromine:caffeine mixture, several coyotes recovered with symptoms of poisoning disappearing within 12 hours in those animals that survived exposure to the toxicant. Several issues related to palatability of the mixture and compound delivery, as well as coyote behavior, sensory abilities, and physiology, indicated the use of a theobromine: caffeine mixture in a CLOD may not be an effective method for managing coyote depredations on domestic livestock.
Key Words: Caffeine, Canis latrans, CLOD, Coyote, Mortality, Theobromine
Post-Natal Skin Follicle Development in The Raieni Cashmere Goat
View PDF File
One hundred eighty (180) skin samples were taken from the mid-right side of 30 Raieni Cashmere goat male and female kids at 1 mo, 1.5 mo, 2 mo, 2.5 mo, 3 mo and 3.5 mo of age. Numbers of primary and secondary skin follicles were determined for each sample. Numbers of secondary follicles increased until 3 mo of age, but numbers of primary follicles did not change after birth of the kids. The skin-follicle traits were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by sex, birth type and age of dam.
Key Words: Skin-Follicle Traits, Cashmere Goats, Raieni Cashmere Goats
Research Symposium Utilization of Genomic Information for the Sheep Industry
View PDF File
During the ASI Annual Convention in Scottsdale, Ariz., January 26, 2012, a research symposium Utilization of Genomic Information for the Sheep Industry was co-sponsored by the American Sheep Industry Association (ASI) and the American Sheep and Goat Center (ASGC). The Symposium Program Planning Committee consisted of Paul Rodgers, ASI; Will R. Getz, Fort Valley State University; and Larry R. Miller, ASGC, who also served as Moderator. The symposium was somewhat different from previous ASI research symposia, in that it more comprehensively focused on a single topic, involved speakers from different perspectives and engaged participants in more indepth discussion.
Especially in the past two decades, volumes of new genomic and genetic information have been generated by means of new research approaches, techniques, and tools. This information created a challenge to harness, interpret, and utilize the wealth of new genomic/genetic information by drawing upon disciplines, such as biochemistry, genetics, statistics, computer science, animal breeding, and several other sciences associated with the biology of the animal.
The speakers addressed the symposium topic from the following points of view, reflecting their different expertise and experiences: Genomic Information Available for Use by the Sheep Industry, Noelle E. Cockett, Utah State University; Application of Genomic Information for Improvement of Quantitative Traits, David R. Notter, Virginia Tech University; Utilization and Potential of Estimates of Genetic Value from an Industry Perspective, David L. Thomas, University of Wisconsin-Madison; Utilization from a Producer Perspective, Chase T. Hibbard, sheep producer, Helena, Mont.; and Genetic Selection Specifically Utilized for Evaluating the Introduction of Outside Breeds and Measuring Their Potential, John Helle, sheep producer, Dillon, Mont.